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As of 2019, GCM Industry and its affiliated companies have 5 advanced mining machine production bases and one production base under construction, with a total production area of 1,200,000 square meters, which can better meet more needs of global customers in the future.


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Plant viruses and viroids | Article about Plant viruses ...

Plant viruses and viroids. Plant viruses are pathogens which are composed mainly of a nucleic acid (genome) normally surrounded by a protein shell (coat); they replicate only in compatible cells, usually with the induction of symptoms in the affected plant. - Plant Information and Pictures

Your source for plant information and pictures of over 3500 plants. Featuring a comprehensive plant search engine.

Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids | K. Subramanya ...

The Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids provides an up-to-date information on the viruses and viroids infecting all types of cultivated and weed plants at global level; and is unique among plant virology texts as it is organized alphabetically by the genus name of the host plant infected.

virus | Definition, Structure, & Facts | Britannica

Virus, infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria. Viruses possess unique infective properties and thus often cause disease in host organisms. Learn about the history, types, and features of viruses.

Virus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A virus is a microscopic parasite that can infect living organisms and cause disease. It can make copies of itself inside another organism's cells. Viruses consist of nucleic acid and a protein coat. Usually the nucleic acid is RNA; sometimes it is DNA.Viruses are able to cause many types of diseases, such as polio, ebola and hepatitis. Virology is the study of viruses.

Plant pathology - Wikipedia

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants.Not included are ectoparasites like insects ...

Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology - 1st Edition

The second section presents an overview of the properties of a selection of 20 well-studied plant viruses, 23 plant virus genera and a few larger groups of plant viruses. The third section, which is abundantly illustrated, highlights the most economically important virus diseases of cereals, legumes, vegetable crops, fruit trees and ornamentals.

Virus classification - Wikipedia

Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system. Similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. [by whom?] This is mainly due to the pseudo-living nature of viruses, which is to say they are non-living particles with some chemical characteristics similar to ...

Viruses - Encyclopedia of Life

A virus is a microscopic organism that can replicate only inside the cells of a host organism. Most viruses are so tiny they are only observable with at least a conventional optical microscope. Viruses infect all types of organisms, including animals and plants, as well as bacteria and archaea.

diseases of plants |

diseases of plants: Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Although the term disease is usually used only for the destruction of live plants, the action of dry rot and the rotting of harvested crops in storage or transport is similar to the rots of growing plants; both are caused by bacteria and fungi. Any environmental factor that favors the growth of parasites or ...

Encyclopedia of plant viruses and viroids (eBook, 2019 ...

Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids. New Delhi : Springer (India) Private Limited, ©2019: Material Type: Document, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File: All Authors / Contributors: K Subramanya Sastry; Bikash Mandal; John Hammond; Robert William Briddon; Simon William Scott

Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids - K. Subramanya ...

Plant viruses are important constraint in world agriculture. Of all the phytopathogens, studies of plant viruses have received special attention as they are difficult to manage. Numerous plant viruses are presently known globally and almost all the crop species are affected by one or the other viruses. Plant viruses were discovered in late 1880s.

Plant disease - Soil pH - Encyclopedia Britannica

Plant disease - Plant disease - Soil pH: Soil pH, a measure of acidity or alkalinity, markedly influences a few diseases, such as common scab of potato and clubroot of crucifers (Plasmodiophora brassicae). Growth of the potato scab organism is suppressed at a pH of 5.2 or slightly below (pH 7 is neutral; numbers below 7 indicate acidity, and those above 7 indicate alkalinity).

Encyclopedia of Virology | ScienceDirect

Encyclopedia of Virology, Third Edition continues its success as the largest single reference source of current research in virology. Unique in its use of concise "mini-review" articles, this praised work covers biological, molecular, and medical topics concerning viruses in animals, plants, bacteria and insects.

Plant Viruses |

Plant viruses. Plant viruses are viruses that multiply by infecting plant cells and utilizing the plant cell's genetic replication machinery to manufacture new virus particles.. Plant viruses do not infect just a single species of plant. Rather, they will infect a group of closely related plant species.

Virus | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Work on plant viruses is done in Agriculture Canada Research Stations and in plant pathology laboratories connected to university departments of botany or biology. Structure and Function. The mature virus organism (virion) consists of viral genes contained in a protective protein shell (a capsid).

Plant virus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia

Plant virus transmission from generation to generation occurs in about 20% of plant viruses. When viruses are transmitted by seeds, the seed is infected in the generative cells and the virus is maintained in the germ cells and sometimes, but less often, in the seed coat.

Plant Diseases | Article about Plant Diseases by The Free ...

Plant Diseases processes that occur in plants under the influence of various factors—pathogens and unfavorable environmental conditions—and are manifested in the disturbance of functions (photosynthesis, respiration, synthesis of tissue and growth substances, and the flow of water and nutritive substances), and the structure of the organism, causing ...

Virus |

Viruses can infect both plants, bacteria, and animals. The tobacco mosaic virus, one of the most studied of all viruses, infects tobacco plants. Bacterial viruses, called bacteriophages, infect a variety of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, a bacteria commonly found in the human digestive tract. Animal viruses cause a variety of fatal diseases.

(PDF) Plant Virus Transmission by Insects

Most plant viruses depend on vectors for their survival and spread. Most vectors are piercing-sucking insects that transmit plant viruses in either the circulative virus (CV) or noncirculative ...

Plant Diseases |

Plant diseases. Like human beings and other animals, plants are subject to diseases. In order to maintain a sufficient food supply for the world's population, it is necessary for those involved in plant growth and management to find ways to combat plant diseases that are capable of destroying crops on a large scale. There are many branches of science that participate in the control of plant ...

Virus classification | Article about Virus classification ...

Plant viruses. Plant viruses are divided into groups, rather than families, except those which belong to families of rhabdo viridae and reoviridae. The group, and correspondingly subgroup and type, can be viewed as analogous to family, genus, and species, respectively.

Plant Diseases Category |

Find facts and information about Plant Diseases from trusted sources at

Journal | Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids

Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids pp 1911-1912; doi:10.1007/978-81-322-3912-3_731

Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids | SpringerLink

The Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids provides an up-to-date information on the viruses and viroids infecting all types of cultivated and weed plants at global level; and is unique among plant virology texts as it is organized alphabetically by the genus name of the host plant infected.

Plant Viruses - Viral Transmission and Disease

Horizontal Transmission In this type of transmission, the plant virus is transmitted as a result of an external source. In order to "invade" the plant, the virus must penetrate the plant's outer protective layer. Plants that have been damaged by weather, pruning, or plant vectors (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and insects) are typically more susceptible to a virus.

Plant Disease | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Plant diseases are recognized by symptoms such as necrosis (death of cells or tissues), chlorosis (yellowing), wilting (shoot and leaf drooping), rot, dwarfing, tumefaction (formation of gall or localized swelling), bronzing or damping-off (plant toppling), etc. Plant diseases are separated into nonparasitic (noninfectious, nontransmissible ...

Plant Viruses - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

J.F. Hernandez Nopsa, ... K.A. Garrett, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Viruses. Plant viruses have been among the earliest viruses studied, with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) discovered by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898. Plant pathogenic viruses are parasitic nucleoproteins that vary in size, chemical composition, physical structure, and number of genomic units.